Research Paper About Diabetes Mellitus

A new research paper about diabetes mellitus reveals that the market for monitoring and therapeutic products to care for diabetes and its major complications came to a total of nearly $40 billion in the top 7 world markets in 2004.

research paper diabetes According to a new study released today from Kalorama Information.

The significant unmet need in this growing patient population has spurred an increase in competition and technological development, making for a dynamic mix of products and players for the years ahead.

According to, so significant is the market opportunity that young companies-many small biopharmaceutical firms-are springing up to meet this challenge, dedicating their entire R&D efforts to diabetes alone.

New technologies and drug classes for the treatment of diabetes are being developed, as are methods of diabetes prevention for at-risk populations. It is a market brimming with opportunities and seeing increasing competition for those opportunities.

The new study, Diabetes and Diabetic Complications: Major World Markets, found significant geographic variation, however, in market opportunity.

Country-specific regulations, public health priorities, demographics, and patterns of clinical and reimbursement practice all contribute to the different growth rates and forecasts for diabetes-related products.

For example, glucose monitoring markets in most of the major industrial nations will experience sluggish growth over the next ten years; however, the same is not true of the glucose monitoring market in the United States, which will nearly double in that period, according to the study. Likewise, oral hypoglycemic medications will find much greater market opportunity in Japan and the United States, than in Western Europe.

The markets are currently dominated by the major pharmaceutical companies and one or two highly specialized suppliers” notes Kenneth G. Krul, Ph.D., the author of the studys report. However, this dominance is now threatened by a host of young companies striving to bring new products based on novel approaches to diabetes patients.”

The study analyzes four main segments-glucose monitoring, insulin, oral hypoglycemics, and drugs to treat four major complications of diabetes (hypertension, dyslipidemia, arrhythmias, and peripheral vascular disease. These market segments are thoroughly detailed and forecasted to 2014 for each of the top seven world markets-France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

If you have $3,500, you can purchase the full report from


Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Options

In addition to controlling diabetes by exercising regularly and eating a healthy diet, there are a few type 2 diabetes treatment options that diabetics should be aware of.

type 2 diabetes treatment optionsThe five main classifications of diabetic medication that may be prescribed are:

* Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors * Biguanides * Meglitinides * Sulfonylureas * Thiazolidinediones

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

This group of diabetic medications slow down the rate at which sugar is absorbed in the digestive tract. However, it is rarely prescribed on its own as it has potentially serious side effects, including stomach and bowel problems.

Treatment and Medication Options for Type II Diabetes


Overweight diabetics are most likely to be prescribed this form of diabetic medication as it can help with controlling their weight as well as their diabetes. They cause the insulin to be used more effectively by the body than normal. Side effects are normally minor but can include nausea and diarrhoea. Biguanides can be prescribed on its own or combined with other medication.


This types of diabetic medication is particularly effective for maintaining low blood sugar levels after eating, especially if a diabetic diet is being followed. The tablets are taken with food and have few, if any, side effects.


By far the most frequently prescribed type of diabetes medication, this helps with insulin production in the body. Although there are few side effects for most people they cannot be taken by anyone with a sulpha medication allergy.


Perhaps the least used type of diabetic medication, this increases the sensitivity of cells to insulin. There are few or no known side effects with this form of medication.

The majority of diabetes can be controlled by taking one or more of the above oral medications. However, there may be cases where diabetics need to inject insulin. This is especially the case if the pancreas has ceased producing insulin completely as in Type 2 diabetes.

Effective diabetes management can usually be achieved by adhering to a sensible diabetic diet and exercise on a regular basis. In fact, this is often sufficient for most diabetics. It is important to consult with your medical practitioner on a regular basis and monitor your blood sugar levels. He can prescribe some of the many diabetic medications, if necessary. If you are in any doubt whatsoever regarding meal plans for a good diabetic diet or anything else related to your diabetes, you should always seek medical advice. However, the internet has a wealth of articles that you can read to keep yourself well informed about your condition.


Exercise, on its own, is not sufficient to help control diabetes, which means that a diabetic diet should also be followed. Much of the advice that a dietician will give regarding a healthy diet applies to both diabetics and non-diabetics alike. The key is moderation in all things.

By Brooke Hayles at


Adolescent Type 2 Diabetes Reaching Higher Rates

The rates for adolescent type 2 diabetes have been on the rise for a while. But even so, researchers were surprised at the unexpected high rates of adolescent type 2 diabetes across nearly all racial and ethnic groups. More and more adolescent diabetes symptoms are showing up in teenagers across the U.S.

adolescent-type-2-diabetesThe findings were presented as part of the SEARCH multi-center study. SEARCH was funded by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in conjunction with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Its charter mission is to study the diabetes symptoms in teenagers by looking at the children and adolescents in the U.S. who have diabetes in an effort to help everyone to better understand the disease. The study’s goals are to track the number of adolescents under 20 with type 2 and type 1 diabetes and chart their differences and similarities by race, ethnicity, types of medical care and treatment, and how their disease affects the lives of people around them.

The study just release show unexpectedly high rates of adolescent type 2 diabetes in the studied group.

Adolescent type 2 diabetes is  rare in the non-Hispanic white population but the incidence of type 1 diabetes among this group is one of the highest in the world.

adolescent type 2 diabetesAmong the American Hispanic adolescent girls, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is higher than that of type 1 diabetes is higher than type 1 diabetes. The same, however, is not true for boys.

Adolescent type 2 diabetes among African Americans girls was about the same as white girls. However, the incidence of type 1 diabetes in this group is higher. The study did note, however, that almost half of African Americans in the study of age 15 and older had poorly controlled blood sugar. This is significant because it is a long term precursor for developing diabetes in later life.

The study of Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents revealed that they have both a high incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. And, as precious studies have shown, their rates of type 1 diabetes were higher than that of adolescents in Asia and the Western Pacific Region.

Of all the demographics followed, the adolescent group with the highest incidence of type 2 diabetes were the Navajo. This group, in common with a cross section group of adolescent with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes, had high-fat diets and sedentary lifestyles.

Find more information see the SEARCH study in the March supplement of Diabetes Care.


Pre Diabetes Symptoms – Women and Men

Before someone is diagnosed with diabetes, they usually experience a set of pre diabetes symptoms which indicates that something may not be quite right with they way that their body is handling glucose.

pre diabetes symptoms womenScientists and researchers have determined certain thresholds of blood glucose levels that are normal as well as levels that indicate diabetes.

There is gap between these two ranges. Pre diabetes is usually defined as a condition where the blood glucose levels are above the normal range but have not yet reached the range considered to be diabetes.

One of the primary pre diabetes symptoms is the need to urinate frequently. In men, especially older men, this could also indicate prostate problems.

But it’s a sign of pre diabetes as well. This is especially true if the frequent urination is accompanied by continual thirst or need to drink.

Neither of these signs are 100% indicative of pre-diabetes, but if they persist it would not be a bad idea to ask your doctor, at your next physical exam, to perform a simple blood glucose test on yourself to put your mind at ease.

Another of the most common mentioned pre diabetes symptoms is blurred vision. Blurred vision is one of the things where, regardless of the cause, you want to seek medical advice right away – because loss or impairment of vision is a serious problem. Blurred vision could indicate incipient glaucoma, some sort of brain trauma, or even pre diabetes.

There are many times when there are absolutely no discernible symptoms or signs of diabetes – and yet the person has it. For these people, the only way to tell is to be tested. So, if you have no symptoms how do you know if you should be tested? You determine if you fall into one of the common risk groups.

If you known that your ancestors have a history of diabetes, you are at risk. If you are overweight, you are at risk. If you fall into one of the following ethnic groups – Hispanic/Latino Americans, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Alaska natives – you are at risk. There are other factors as well, which your doctor can inform you of. The key is that if you fall into any one of the “at risk” factors, you should periodically be tested for pre diabetes.

Understanding Pre Diabetes and It’s Symptoms

Pre diabetes is a critical health condition without any apparent symptoms of diabetes. This condition is also referred to as impaired glucose tolerance. Pre diabetes is common in people before he develops type II diabetes. As estimated by American Diabetes Association, nearly 54 million American individuals over age 20 are suffering from pre diabetes condition with a higher blood glucose level than normal, however, not so high that it can be exclusively classified under diabetic condition.

Every day, physicians and health professionals are reminded of the value of diagnosing pre diabetes condition as the initial phase of the treatment in order to protect people suffering from more critical health complications. Early diagnosis as well as treatment of pre diabetes may help people not suffering from diabetes type II and all other related health hazards such as heart problem, hypertension, eye disease, kidney disease, and many others.


Diabetes Diet Information and Guidelines

One of the best sources of diabetes diet information is the food pyramid guidelines developed by the Department of Agriculture. In fact, if everyone were to follow these guidelines, we’d have much lower incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes in this country.

diabetes diet information
The food pyramid focuses on getting you the nutrients that you need while limiting your amounts of fat, sugar, and assorted bad food choices.

In fact, if you don’t have diabetes but your family history reveals that you have a greater than average chance of eventually getting it, following the food pyramid is a good way of maintaining a pre diabetes diet. And it may prevent you from ever getting the disease.

In general diabetics have trouble assimilating food into their bodies because of the inability of their body to either produce insulin or to utilize the insulin that it does have.

Because of this, they – more than other groups of people, have to be especially aware of how and what they eat. And even though the food pyramid was developed for non-diabetics, it is well suited to serve those with diabetes as well.

The base of the food pyramid consists of breads and grains. Whenever possible, choose the whole grain variations of these food choices. For example, instead of white bread, choose whole brain breads.

In addition, many breakfast cereals in the marketplace now have whole grain versions in addition to their non-whole grained choices. Whole grains are good because they impact the blood glucose levels as a slower rate than more refined grains. For the diabetic, this means less spiking of the blood sugar levels.

One moderation in their diet that diabetics may want to modify when looking at the various categories in the food pyramid is to replace high glycemic foods in that group with lower glycemic foods. A perfect example is breads, White bread has a higher glycemic rating than rye bread. So, if you want bread with your meal, choose the rye bread or a similar low glycemic bread to eat.

The same goes for vegetables, milks, nuts, grains, and so on. Whenever you have a choice, choose the food with the lower glycemic value. This way your glucose level will remain more stable throughout the day.

A diabetes diet does not only concentrate on what you eat, it focuses on when you eat it as well. As much as possible, try to be consistent in your meal choices. That is, try to eat at around the same time each day. And try to eat about the same quantity of food at each sitting. This helps to maintain your glucose levels at a constant range.

Additional Diabetes Diet Information

  • Those with diabetes should eat a diet high in dietary fiber (soluble fiber)
  • Restrict the amount of fat that you eat, especially saturated fat.
  • Limit your intake of sweet foods in the diabetes diet.

Following the correct diabetic diet information, in addition to helping you to live with your diabetes, will probably help to extend your life expectancy as well.


Drugs Used to Treat Diabetes

Most drugs used to treat diabetes,  that are available on the market today seek to do it by reducing the level of glucose in the bloodstream. With the exceptions of insulin and exenatide as well as pramlinitde they are all taken orally and thus are commonly referred to as oral hypoglycemic agents.

drugs used to treat diabetes

Prescription for Drug Alternatives

You would be wrong to assume, however,  that there is just a single type of drugs used to treat diabetes. In fact, there are quite a few classes to choose from and which one you need to use depends on the type of diabetes you have and also on your age as well as personal situation, and a few other factors as well.

For example, Insulin Is Ideal For Type 1 Diabetes. You could, for instance be suffering from Type 1 diabetes which is caused by the body not having enough amounts of insulin. In this case, you would need to have insulin injected into your body – or, if you prefer, you could take this diabetes drug through inhalation.

On the other hand, Type 2 diabetes means that the diabetics’ cells have become resistant to insulin. In this scenario, you would need to take diabetes drugs that can increase the ability of your cells to take insulin or which help create additional amounts of insulin to override the resistance.

There is more than one group of diabetes drugs and they are usually taken orally and which effectively combat Type 2 diabetes and can even are taken in combination. By taking insulin for your Type 2 diabetes, you will find that this diabetes drug can be taken in the different dosages provided the patient knows how to adjust the dose according to the readings of his or her blood glucose levels, which are generally, measured using a meter.

Of course, insulin is the most widely used and it can be taken subcutaneously through injecting it or by using an insulin pump, though there is also further research being conducted as to how else to administer it.

Sulfonylurea was among the first drugs of diabetes given as far as oral hypoglycemic medications were concerned. There have been eight different types of this diabetes drug marketed as pills throughout North America and it is a second generation drug that is widely used today being more effective than the earlier first-generation drugs. These drugs, aside from causing the patient to gain weight, wrack a lot less stress on the body.

Another popular kind of diabetes drug is alpha-glycosidase inhibitors which are really pills for diabetes and not real hypoglycemic agents due to the fact that they do not directly affect the secretion of insulin or sensitivity to it. They do however help reduce the speed at which starch is digested in small intestines and thus vastly slows down the entry of glucose into the bloodstream.


Symptoms of Borderline Diabetes

With diabetes being the health topic in much of the news these days that many wonder what the symptoms of borderline diabetes are.

What is borderline diabetes? Originally, borderline diabetes as meant to indicate a condition where the blood glucose levels were elevated but not yet in the “official” diabetic range. Even though people continue to use the term, borderline diabetes, it’s a term that has been falling out of favor with many health professionals. Another name for borderline diabetes is pre-diabetes.

For example, many people believe that you either have diabetes or you don’t. People in this camp believe that what is commonly referred to as borderline diabetes is, in fact, diabetes – but in its early stages. Whatever school of thought one subscribes to, however, borderline diabetes should be treated as a serious matter. Failure to do so could result in serious damage to your eyesight, heart, blood vessels, nervous system, and major organs throughout the body.

The Centers for Disease Control has estimated that over fifty million people in the country have borderline diabetes. The estimate is based on the number of people who have been diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose.

Common Signs of Borderline Diabetes

Experiencing any of the following three symptoms is consistent with having borderline diabetes but they are not evidence that one actually has borderline diabetes:

  • Constantly being thirsty.
  • Frequent need to urinate.
  • Constant sense of fatigue.

Measurable Symptoms of Borderline Diabetes

There are three types of borderline diabetes manifestations – insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. The symptoms for all the three are the same, i.e. fasting blood sugar level of 100-125 mg/dl and 140-199 mg/dl reading for glucose as result of the oral glucose tolerance test.

When you suffer from insulin resistance your body would not be able to respond normally to the insulin produced which would result in overproduction of this substance. In most cases the insulin intolerance can be cured; however, this could result into problems such as clogged arteries, hypertension and loss of HDL (or the good cholesterol) from the blood.

The impaired glucose tolerance is usually due to insulin resistance. When the body increases the production of insulin, it puts a lot of stress on the pancreas which in time decrease in its productivity.  When this happens, the person would develop all symptoms of full blown diabetes while actually they have impaired glucose tolerance.

If you do have pre-diabetes, you will undoubtedly have to make some lifestyle changes to prevent it from getting worse. Your diet will certainly change. And if you don’t exercise much, you will probably have to begin an exercise routine.

It’s important that, if you feel that you have borderline diabetes, you don’t self-diagnose or self-medicate. Only a doctor can tell you if you actually do have pre-diabetes. And only a doctor or medical care person can prescribe treatments.


New Cure for Diabetes

Diabetes has been recognized as a disease for centuries so it’s no surprise that researchers are always claiming to have come up with a new cure for diabetes. And yet, after all these years, researchers have yet to come up with the definitive new cure for diabetes.

In this country, diabetes kills over 70,000 people every year. It’s constantly somewhere in the top five of all leading causes of death. But maybe things are finally changing. In the past 20 years ongoing clinical trials have resulted in an explosion of new theories and techniques aimed at defeating this disease. Some of techniques that show promise of being new ways to reverse and cure diabetes are as follows:

Gastric bypass (controversial new cure for diabetes) – In 1999, a New York surgeon named Francesco Rubino, accidentally “discovered” a new cure for diabetes. When doing follow-ups with overweight patients on whom he had performed gastric bypass surgery for, he noticed that the surgery seem to have a curious secondary effect. In the first few weeks following the operation, they seem to have been cured of their diabetes. Recalling experimental operations performed on the stomach and intestines in the 1940’s, that also had led to diabetes cures, he wondered if the result was due to the removal of fat or removal of parts of the intestines. So Dr. Rubino did his own tests, on animals. His conclusion was that the key to the diabetes cure was not the weight loss, but the actual operation. Needless to say, his conclusions caused an uproar in the medical world where one of the main theories regarding the cause of diabetes is that it is directly related to weight gain. You can read more about this interesting study at gastric bypass diabetes cure.

Injection of insulin-secreting cells (pancreatic transplants new cure for diabetes) – Known as the Edmonton Protocol, and carried out in the 1990’s, this method involved physicians injecting insulin-secreting cells into the patients portal vein which leads directly into the liver. These insulin-secreting cells, known as islets of Langerhans, came from donated pancreas. The trial procedures involved seven patients all of whom suffered from severe diabetes. The results were spectacular. Every single one of the patients was freed of their wild glucose level swings and were able to give up their insulin injections. Of course, more tests followed. The results of these further tests indicates that the “cure” is not always long lasting. Long term trials show that only 8% of the patients managed to stay free of insulin for over a year. However, for these 8%, the process seems to have resulted in a real cure for their diabetes. The huge drawback to this method, however, is that it is dependent on the number of donor pancreas that are available at any given time. For more info see The Edmonton Protocol.

Both of these discoveries give promise to the ongoing progress towards eventually coming up with a new and inexpensive cure for diabetes that can be utilized by the millions of Americans desperately looking for help for their condition.


Benefits of the Diabetes Food List

A diabetic can greatly improve the quality of her diet by choosing foods in sync with the diabetes food list.

diabetes food list

The Official Pocket Guide to Diabetic Exchanges: Choose Your Foods

The diabetes food guide can be best comprehended by constructing a food pyramid from the various food groups. The food pyramid should classify foods into 6 different food groups. The foods located at the base of the pyramid are those that can be consumed in the greatest quantity. The foods at the top of the pyramid need to be eaten in strict moderation.

The bottom, or largest, group on the diabetes food guide consists of beans,  grains, and vegetables. This is the food group from which you should choose  the largest portion of your daily food. The top smallest group consisting of  fats, sweets, and alcohol comprise the group from which you should severely restrict your intake.

The diabetes food guide is a bit different from a daily food guide of a non-diabetic. It’s usually recommended that diabetics eat many smaller meals throughout the day instead of three large meals. The smaller meals act to equalize the body’s glucose production instead of causing highs and lows.

The diabetes food guide differs from the normal food guide in that it pays greater attention to proteins and carbohydrates. For example, some foods, such as potatoes are counted as starches instead of vegetables. The same goes for most beans. Cheese is considered to be a meat instead of a dairy product. Let’s take a look at the various groups and try to understand the foods in each of the groups.

Grains and starches are the foods at the base of the pyramid. These are foods such as potatoes, peas, corn, bread, beans, pasta, and cereal. You can usually have 6 to 11 portions of these foods daily. If you are watching calories you will want to stay nearer the 6 mark instead of 7.

Vegetables are naturally low fat foods and can be eaten either raw or cooked. When cooking it is best to stay away from oils and fats. Steaming is a good way to enjoy fresh vegetables. Also a fresh salad can be savored as long as you stay away from the heavier dressings and stick with the lighter vinegar or lemon juice dressings with a small amount of olive oil.  Fruit is the next layer and should be eaten two to four times daily. Fruit is usually high in natural sugar so you need to choose wisely when making your fruit choices.

Milk is another group which allows you two to three servings daily. It’s best if you choose low fat or non fat dairy products so you can avoid the extra calories and fat servings and still get the nutritional values. Meat and meat substitutes includes chicken, turkey, beef, fish, eggs, cheese, and peanut butter. In this category you will need to limit you intake to four to six ounces per day.

The last group in the diabetes food guide is fats, sweets, and alcohol. This should usually be reserved for a special treat and not a part of your every day diet. You can have these items on occasion but you need to limit the portion size and the frequency you eat them.

Hopefully this diabetes food guide will help you get started in the right direction. A qualified nutritionist can take these foods and help you work out an eating plan that you can live with without feeling deprived.


Sugar Diabetes Diet – How it Works

A prime tool in implementing the sugar diabetes diet is the Diabetes Food Pyramid which breaks down food into groups and pyramid levels that diabetics should follow.

sugar diabetes dietThe food guide can be instrumental in helping you to develop a healthy eating plan and choose foods that won’t affect your blood sugar levels in a negative way.

It also helps you by recommending suggested number of servings from each food group. Diabetes is primarily a disease in which the body has trouble regulating blood sugar.

By implementing a sugar diabetes diet, you begin the first step towards managing your disease.

For example, whole grains are much better than refined grains in their ability to keep your blood sugar levels in balance and on an even keel.

In addition, a high fiber diet helps to slow down the digestion of carbohydrates in your stomach, which helps to even out their flow into your blood stream. So it’s a simple matter to replace the processed grains in your diet with whole grains.

Also, by following the Diabetes Food Pyramid, you can make many more substitutions.

But don’t get hung up on having to follow the suggestions of a sugar diabetes plan to the letter. If you stray from it every once in a while, it’s fine. The important thing is that you find a way to to incorporate it into the majority of your meals.

A key component of diabetes control is weight control. The primary way of achieving this is through reducing calories and the Diabetes Food Pyramid helps you to do this also by ensuring that most of your foods come from the lower potion of the food pyramid.

The Role That Glycemic Index Plays in A Sugar Diabetes Diet

In addition to following the Diabetes Food Pyramid, you should being to pay attention to the glycemic index (or GI) of foods. Foods with a low GI value will have a lesser effect on your blood glucose levels than those with a high GI. Gradually begin to swap out foods with low GI values and replace them with foods that hove low GI foods such as whole grain breads, cereals, pastas, fruits, vegetables, and so on.

What About Desserts?

The perfect desserts for anyone on sugar diabetes diets are sugar free candies, chocolates, cakes, cookies, and so on. Many large shopping stores have diabetic sections where you can find some or all of these diabetic treats. Although, to be honest, most are ordinary tasting – manufacturers are getting better at finding appropriate sugar substitutes to include in their desserts.

If you feel that you are unable to come up with an appropriate food plan on your own, seek the help of a dietitian who specializes in creating a diabetic diet. The proper sugar diabetes diet can help you to manage your blood sugar effective enough that your doctor  may be able to cut down your medication or eliminate it altogether. You might also try adding cinnamon to your daily diet. Studies have shown some forms of it to lower glucose levels in the blood stream.